Construcción y tipos de puentes

Puentes

Un puente es una construcción, por lo general artificial, que permite salvar un accidente geográfico o cualquier otro obstáculo físico como un río, un cañón, un valle, un camino o cualquier otro obstáculo. El diseño en cada puente varía dependiendo de su función y la naturaleza del terreno sobre el que el puente es construido. Su proyecto y su cálculo pertenecen a la ingeniería estructural, siendo numerosos los tipos de diseños que se han aplicado a lo largo de la historia, influidos por los materiales disponibles, las técnicas desarrolladas y las condiciones económicas, entre otros factores.

Tipos de puentes fijos

De Arco: Este tipo de puentes reparten el peso sobre los pilares de apoyo, los arcos contiguos y los apoyos en la tierra firme. De esta manera consiguen mayor distancia entre los pilares.

Cantilever: El peso en este tipo de construcciones( de acero u hormigón) se divide en dos partes simétricas y se sostiene desde el centro, como sucede en muchos puentes levadizos.

De Tirantes: Esta clase de puentes se sujeta cerca del centro de sus vigas. El de Normandía alcanza los 2.22 m de longitud y el de Forth se construyó en 1890.

De Armadura: Los puentes de este tipo constan de dos vigas laterales, permiten abarcar grandes distancias y admiten la zona de tránsito entre las sujeciones o por encima de ellas.

Atirantado: El mayor puente atirantado de hormigón en el mundo es el del embalse de Barrio de Luna (España), que se inauguró en el año 1985 y alcanza 440 m.

Puentes Colgantes: En esta clase de construcciones de gran altura, el peso del puente se sostiene sobre los soportes verticales que se apoyan en el suelo y en los anclajes de las cuerdas. Las torres se fijan a los pilares de sujeción, que pueden estar muy separados entre sí, y sirven de apoyo para los distintos cables.

Los 10 puentes más largos del mundo

Los materiales usados en la construcción de puentes: piedra, madera acero, hormigón armado, hormigón pretensado, hormigón postensado, mixtos.

Componentes básicos de los puentes

Los componentes de los puentes caen en dos categorías; componentes de la superestructura y componentes de la subestructura.

Superestructura: Es la parte del puente donde actúa la carga móvil, y esta constituido por:

  • Losa del tablero
  • Vigas longitudinales y Transversales
  • Aceraras y pasamanos
  • Capa de rodadura
  • Otras instalaciones

Subestructura:Es la parte del puente que se encarga de transmitir las solicitaciones al suelo de cimentación, y esta constituida por:

  • Estribos
  • Pilas
  • Muros de Ala

 

!!Aqui les dejo un archivo con imagenes de los puentes más importantes del mundo¡¡

Puentes_Importantes_del_Mundo.rar

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Comentarios

hola que tal, escribo desde venezuela, estudio el ultimo semestre de tecnologia en la construccion, y para servicio comunitario quiero elaborar un proyecto algo ambicioso, es un elevado, para el paso de vehiculos en una de las principales arterias del municipio donde vivo el problema, es que no consigo informacion... mis prenguntas son las siguientes:

¿que materiales me recomiendas utilizar?

¿cuales son las caracteristicas de estos materiales, (longitud)?

¿donde normalmente se puede conseguir el costo real de estos materiales, para elaborar un presupuesto?

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muchas gracias por tu articulo. 

Me gustaria saber si tienes algun documento con las partes de los puentes en español y en ingles. Trabajo para una empresa que construye puentes modulares de acero y me quiero asegurar de que las partes estan bien traducidas.

Gracias

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